Why Was the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente Formed

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In October 1913, the House of Priests decided to send Serbia an admonition, followed by a final proposal to inform Germany and Italy of certain activities and to ask for help and send spies to report if there was a real retreat. Serbia reacted to the announcement with resistance, and the final offer was sent on October 17 and received the next day. She called on Serbia to empty itself of Albania within eight days. After Serbia`s departure, the emperor made a solemn visit to Vienna to try to repair some of the damage done earlier in the year. Russia had already been a member of the League of three Emperors, which was allied with Austria-Hungary and Germany in 1873. The alliance was part of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck`s plan to diplomatically isolate the France; he feared that the revanchist aspirations of the France would lead him to try to recover his losses of 1871 from the German-French War. [4] The alliance also served to oppose socialist movements such as the First International, which conservative leaders found troubling. [5] However, the League had great difficulties with the growing tensions between Russia and Austria-Hungary, especially over the Balkans, where the rise of nationalism and the continued decline of the Ottoman Empire left many former Ottoman provinces fighting for independence. [6] In order to counter Russian and French interests in Europe, the double alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary was concluded in October 1879 and with Italy in May 1882. The situation in the Balkans, especially after the Serbo-Bulgarian War of 1885 and the Treaty of Berlin of 1878, which made Russia feel deceived about its gains in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877/8, prevented the renewal of the league in 1887. To prevent Russia from allying itself with the France, Bismarck signed the secret reinsurance treaty with Russia in 1887. This treaty guaranteed that both sides would remain neutral in the event of the outbreak of war.

The growing rapprochement between Russia and France and the exclusion of Bismarck from Russia from the German financial market in 1887 prevented a renewal of the treaty in 1890 and ended the alliance between Germany and Russia. [7] After Bismarck`s forced resignation in 1890, the young Kaiser Wilhelm embarked on his imperialist path of world politics in order to increase the empire`s influence and control over the world. [8] [9] Let`s look at how the triple alliance was formed and began. If we go back to the time of the German-French war, we can understand the beginning of the Triple Alliance. It all started before that, it started with the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, but it appeared in the spotlight at the end of the 19th century at the time of the German-French War. The humiliating defeat of the France in the German-French War of 1870-1871 had completed the unification of Germany. German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck then created a complex diplomatic network of alliances and treaties to ensure peace. Bismarck rightly assumed that French foreign policy would aim to create favorable conditions for another war with Germany. Therefore, his efforts were aimed at maintaining the diplomatic isolation of the France. The fluidity of these loyalties must be emphasized. For example, Italy did not join Germany and Austria during the war and instead joined the Entente in the Treaty of London in 1915.

A defensive system of dual alliance between Austria-Hungary and Germany was formed to counter possible Russian aggression. Later in 1882, Italy joined the agreement which became known as the Triple Alliance. In 1882, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy formed the triple alliance. The three countries agreed to support each other if attacked by France or Russia. The France felt threatened by this alliance. Britain was also concerned about the growth of the German navy, and in 1904 both countries signed the Entente Cordiale. The aim of the alliance was to promote cooperation against the perceived threat posed by Germany. Britain, long in glorious isolation from other European nations, has been driven by its interests to move towards a protective international alliance. There had been some efforts to achieve a German-French rapprochement, but in the end they had no effect. In 1898, Théophile Delcassé took control of French foreign policy; he was against Germany and hoped for a rapprochement with Britain, his goal was the isolation of Germany. .